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  • God Atum,  Gods

    God Atum

    He was a solar divinity, the primitive patron of Eliopoli. He was represented by the figure of a man, with the pharaoh’s crown and he was associated with Shu and Tefnut, to form a threefold. He created himself, before he generated Shu and Tefnut, and was the primordial god in Eliopoli. Under the II dynasty, he was assimilated to the sun Ra, in this way, the God began to symbolize the sun that goes to sleep. In “The book of what is in Ade”, Ra has Atum’s features when he passes the nocturne world. Atum’s sacred animals were the lion, the snake and the Ichneumon.

  • Bubastis,  City


    Excavations to Bubastis Bubastis (in the region of the delta, near Zagazig of today) was the capital of the XVIII nomos of the delta. Its Egyptian name “Per Bast” means “Bastis home” and comes from the name of the divinity that protected it, Bastet. His sanctuary already existed in the Ancient Reign, in Khufu’s and Chefren’s period. Later Pepy I ordered to build a chapel, in the temple there are also finds from the following epochs and particularly from Ramesse’s II epoch, Ramesse put in the courtyard in the sanctuary four statues that represented himself as door-sign. The Libyan sovereigns of the XXII dynasty elected Bubastis as their residence and…

  • hairstyle,  Life

    The hairstyle in Ancient Egypt

    The Egyptians gave a great importance to cosmetic and personal cleanliness. The well-off people had a bathroom in their homes, but the poor also did not renounce to wash themselves at least once a day, using ashes or clay as a detergent. The hair care was particularly important. Thutmose III Even if in the official events the ancient Egyptians wore a wig, they did not renounce in keeping their natural hair healthy and clean. The wig in fact did not cover them completely: the portraits often show a straight bang that appears from under a wig of little braids. The wigs were made with natural hair or with vegetable fibers…

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  • Pharaoh

    Pharaoh Menes

    All the sources of Egyptian history declare unanimously that Menes was the first Pharaoh. A virtual confirmation is given by the famous “Palermo Stone”. The superior register gives only the names, under a quite fanciful way, of kings on whom the analyst is not able to give more information. The second register would certainly have begun with Menes, but the part concerning him was lost; in analogy with the other two kings of the I dynasty mentioned in the big fragment in Cairo, it’s believed with almost complete certainty that there were both his name of Horo as well as his own name, maybe with that of his mother’s. Under…

  • City


    Ancient city and, for many centuries, capital of Upper Egypt, built on the banks of the Nile, at about 725 Km south of Cairo of today. In ancient Egyptian it was known with the name Waset. Tebe is today partially occupied by the cities of Karnak and Luxor. The name Tebe was given by the Greek, who called it also Diospolis (“heavenly city”) and it’s identified in the Ancient Testament as No (“the city”) or No-Amon (Amon’s city). Of prehistoric origin, Tebe appears for the first time in documents that go back to ancient Egypt. Tombs that go back to the VI dynasty (2407 – 2255 BC) have been discovered…

  • City

    Ancient and modern cities in Egypt


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  • Confession,  The book of the dead,  The Religion


      When the dead person appeared before Osiris’s tribunal, he exculpated himself before the judges with a confession called “denial” because it was performed denying the fact of having committed injustices or evil actions (generally religious or ritual). This confession was given in two periods: first the dead person directed himself to the whole tribunal, then to the 42 divinities who helped Osiris. After greeting the latter: “Great God, God of truth and justice, Almighty God”, of whom he declared he knew the magic name, as the one of his helpers, the dead person began his confession: “I have not been violent against my parents. I have not committed crimes.…

  • Crown - Scepter,  Pharaoh

    The crown and the scepter

    The pharaoh’s crown The Egyptian crowns worn by the kings defined the pharaoh’s status in a certain moment of time. The role could vary from the political one (head of the State), to the spiritual one (priest) to the moral one (teacher). Even the Gods (divinities) wore headgears that were used to identify the roles they had in the world of the living and in the world of the dead and at the same time they were used to distinguish one from the other. These identifying headgears were sometimes exchanged moving the owner’s qualities to who was wearing it. Legend   Amentet feather and bird on a support Amun also…

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  • Pharaoh

    Pharaohs: the consecration

    The ceremony for the Pharaoh’s consecration, long and laborious in the New Reign, forsaw a ceremonial phase in which the pharaoh seized a staff that in the lower part, was bigger and sculptured, had a symbolic image of the Evil, that the sovereign “had to drag in the dust”. The complicated ceremony mentioned was divided in five phases, that required various days of rituals. First phase: The Prince’s/Pharaoh’s purification with the unction of magic and perfumed noble ointments. Second phase: The nurturing (sometimes represented in the scenes found on the temple walls) by a female divinity, that means that the Prince had a divine descent. Third Phase: The clothing and…

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  • Armament,  Life

    Armament in Ancient Egypt

    The armament, during the Ancient and the Middle Reign was rather poor: it had only stone clubs, arches, arrows and javelins with a flint or bronze point, daggers and bronze axes and a great shield of stretched skin in different shapes (rectangular, oval or round). Later, in the New Reign, the military outfit had also arms known from the east by the hyskos: daggers, spears, a leather helmet, an armor in pressed linen. The great novelty of that period was the war cart with two wheels with rays, that came from the hyskos, but tha the Egyptian changed making it lighter and so faster, but still very steady. The box,…

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