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  • Pharaoh

    Pharaoh Chefren

    Pharaon Chefren Chefren, Khaf Ra, in the original Egyptian denomination, he was the fourth pharaoh in the IV Dynasty, ascended to the throne as his brother Radjedef’s successor. He too, conquered soon, with the decisiveness of his manners and actions, the reputation of a cruel tyrant, able to keep Egypt in an iron fist, and to pursue an expansionist politic toward the Sinai and Palestine regions.Beautiful representations of Chefren have reached us: the most monumental and famous is undoubtly the one recognized in the Sphinx’s impassive face and his pyramid. Reproduction of texts or materials, whether partial or complete, in any manner, with any means is prohibited without prior written consent Support Isis’s Ancient Egypt    …

  • Pharaoh

    Pharaoh Menes

    All the sources of Egyptian history declare unanimously that Menes was the first Pharaoh. A virtual confirmation is given by the famous “Palermo Stone”. The superior register gives only the names, under a quite fanciful way, of kings on whom the analyst is not able to give more information. The second register would certainly have begun with Menes, but the part concerning him was lost; in analogy with the other two kings of the I dynasty mentioned in the big fragment in Cairo, it’s believed with almost complete certainty that there were both his name of Horo as well as his own name, maybe with that of his mother’s. Under…

  • Crown - Scepter,  Pharaoh

    The crown and the scepter

    The pharaoh’s crown The Egyptian crowns worn by the kings defined the pharaoh’s status in a certain moment of time. The role could vary from the political one (head of the State), to the spiritual one (priest) to the moral one (teacher). Even the Gods (divinities) wore headgears that were used to identify the roles they had in the world of the living and in the world of the dead and at the same time they were used to distinguish one from the other. These identifying headgears were sometimes exchanged moving the owner’s qualities to who was wearing it. Legend   Amentet feather and bird on a support Amun also…

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  • Pharaoh

    Pharaohs: the consecration

    The ceremony for the Pharaoh’s consecration, long and laborious in the New Reign, forsaw a ceremonial phase in which the pharaoh seized a staff that in the lower part, was bigger and sculptured, had a symbolic image of the Evil, that the sovereign “had to drag in the dust”. The complicated ceremony mentioned was divided in five phases, that required various days of rituals. First phase: The Prince’s/Pharaoh’s purification with the unction of magic and perfumed noble ointments. Second phase: The nurturing (sometimes represented in the scenes found on the temple walls) by a female divinity, that means that the Prince had a divine descent. Third Phase: The clothing and…

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  • Karnak,  Pharaoh

    The Pharaohs – architects in Karnak

    Surely the sacred part of ancient Waset, the famous Karnak, is one of the most famous places in Egypt and in the world. Karnak, domain of the god Amon, where from the XII dynasty the pharaohs ordered to build a great complex, that during the centuries became one of the most colossal works of antiquity. The group of temples have not been built in the same period, but in almost two thousand years, when the pharaohs of the XVIII and XIX dynasty in particular, alternated themselves in the role of devisors. The pharaohs of the New Reign wanted to pay homage to god Amon, building colossal statues, upraising piers, preparing…

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  • Pharaoh

    Sed party

      At the end of the thirtieth year of reign, the pharaohs celebrated the “Sed” or royal jubilee. The ceremony demonstrated the pharaoh’s vigour, a necessary condition for the good state of the reign. One of the most important moments was the sovereign’s ritual tun who so demonstrated his vigour: he had to go around two building Hat symbolized border: stones, for three times. The architectural complex symbolized in all its structures the royal duties and the union of Egypt: the chapels, the houses of North and South and the royal stand with the pavilions for the two thrones. The altar represented the southern and northern borders of the Country.…

  • Dynasties,  Pharaoh

    Pharaoh Narmer

      The first pharaoh: around 3200 BC was Narmer, who would later take up the name Menes, once he became a monarch. He was king of the southern part of Egypt or Upper Egypt, he conquered the northern part, or Lower Egypt. Once Egypt was unified he was the first one to wear the traditional headgear, a fusion of the “White Crown” of Lower Egypt with the “Red Crown” of Upper Egypt. We have a tablet about him that celebrates his military triumph. 

  • Pharaoh

    Khufu (Cheope)

      Names: Cheope, Khufu (or Khufwey, according to Gardiner), Suphis, Horo Medjdo Dynasty: IV ( 2630-2510 BC) Years of reign: 63 (Manetone); 23 (Canon in Torino) [2606-2583 BC (Torino)] Historical placement: Ancient Reign 2700-2200 BC. The name Khufu, in the form handed down by Erodoto, belongs to the historical education of the whole world. His funeral monument, the great pyramid in Giza, was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and is also today at the center of countless measurements, hypothesis, different suppositions. We know little about the great pyramid constructor’s life, except some material proofs of his autocratic power.   The cartouche that includes the name…

  • Pharaoh


      Cleopatra (Alexandria in Egypt 69-30 BC), the last queen of the Tolomeo dynasty; reigned over Egypt as Cleopatra VII from 51 to 30 BC and has passed to history for her love affairs with Julius Cesar and Marc Anthony. Pharaoh Tolomeo XII Aulete’s daughter, at her father’s death in 51 BC, she ascended to the throne with her twelve year old brother Tolomeo XIII, on the condition that they got married, as it was custom among Egyptian pharaohs. In the third year of reign, Tolomeo XIII, encouraged by his councilors, assumed on his own the government and sent his sister in exile. Cleopatra took refuge in Syria, where she…

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