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  • Life,  Mines

    Mines in Ancient Egypt

    The mines that the ancient Egyptians exploited, were all in the desert. There were deposits of copper, of malachite and of turquoise in Synai and east of Koptos and in Nubia and even gold mines were frequent. Their exploitation was rather difficult, because of the lack of water, of the unbearable heat and by the Beduins’ attacks. In the most ancient epochs even armed expeditions were organized. Only in the New Reign, thanks to Sethi I and to his son Ramesses II, the exploitations began to be organized. Some pits were dug already along the road that starting from Kuban (Contra-Pselkhis), led to the Nubian mines in Ekayate, where there…

  • Life,  Visir


    The title of visir (In Egyptian tjaty) was instituited under Snefru and the first one who used it was Nefermaat, but the function goes back to a much older time and was already performed by Imohtep under the pharaoh Djoser (the title tjaty was put before his name in the texts only in the successive epoch). The visir was at the head of the Egyptian functionaries and of the central administration. As the internal minister, he had relations with the nomarchs, he controlled the division of the land and the administration of the “corporations” of the professions, he supervised the police, recruited the troops. His orders were carried by the…

  • hairstyle,  Life

    The hairstyle in Ancient Egypt

    The Egyptians gave a great importance to cosmetic and personal cleanliness. The well-off people had a bathroom in their homes, but the poor also did not renounce to wash themselves at least once a day, using ashes or clay as a detergent. The hair care was particularly important. Thutmose III Even if in the official events the ancient Egyptians wore a wig, they did not renounce in keeping their natural hair healthy and clean. The wig in fact did not cover them completely: the portraits often show a straight bang that appears from under a wig of little braids. The wigs were made with natural hair or with vegetable fibers…

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  • Armament,  Life

    Armament in Ancient Egypt

    The armament, during the Ancient and the Middle Reign was rather poor: it had only stone clubs, arches, arrows and javelins with a flint or bronze point, daggers and bronze axes and a great shield of stretched skin in different shapes (rectangular, oval or round). Later, in the New Reign, the military outfit had also arms known from the east by the hyskos: daggers, spears, a leather helmet, an armor in pressed linen. The great novelty of that period was the war cart with two wheels with rays, that came from the hyskos, but tha the Egyptian changed making it lighter and so faster, but still very steady. The box,…

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  • Life

    Jewels in Ancient Egypt

      The Egyptian goldsmith’s craft reached a remarkable skill. The goldsmiths were specialized in the various techniques to working of the gold ( filigree, gold leaf, inlaid), but the Egyptian jewels are famous mostly for their polychrome, obtained inserting gems, such as the carnelian and the lapislazuli . They also practiced the tecnique of the niello, which was filling apposite setting with enamel or a vitreous colored paste. Both men and women of high rank wore the necklace called usekh, made by many strings of pearls, or gold chains with many pendants. The women wore also many bracelets on their wrists, on their arms and on their ankles. A distinguishing…

  • Life

    The Priest in Ancient Egypt

    The political face of the god-king Among the great in the bureaucratic organization there were also those belonging to the high clergy who had the pharaoh’s delegation to celebrate the rituals. In Egypt, in fact, the high priest was the pharaoh. On him the many priests depended, who celebrated the rituals in honor of the various divinities. Inside the clergy there was a strict hierarchy and a precise division of the duties. In every sanctuary there was a head-priest, called the “prophet” who performed the rituals as the pharaoh’s representative. The minor clergy was formed by the webu, the “pure ones” who cared for the maintenance of the sacred objects…

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  • Life,  scribe

    Scribe in Ancient Egypt

      The figure of the scribe was born with the necessity to make precise inventory of the great mounds of food stuffs that went in and cut of the pharaoh’s house. The training time for the scriba was long, it went from the copying of the text in hyerogliphic cursive, to the compilation of miscellany from literary works. Only the most gifted students, those who learned the hard art of the monumental hyeroglyphic, the most complicated one, were able to reach the court. The scribe, aware of his role, jelously kept the secrets of his profession and hand them down from generation to generation. His tradition working tools were a…

  • Life,  Medicine

    Medicine in Ancient Egypt

    In the Egyptian medicine there were two different tendencies: the magical-religious one, which included very primitive elements, and the empirical-rational one, based on experience and observation, with no mystic elements. There were many doctors in Ancient Egypt, so each one of them cared almost exclusively about the diseases they knew better. The ordinary doctors were helped by professionals of a superior level, by inspectors and by supervisors. A male paramedic staff assisted them. They owed their anatomic knowledge to the observation of animals during the slaughtering and not to the observation of the embalming of a dead person which was reserved to the priests devoted to  Anubis, so their knowledge on anatomy, that is, of the structure and of the…

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  • Life

    Life in Ancient Egypt

    The many aspects of life in Ancient Egypt How were the ancient Egyptians’ days? How did they dress, how did they put on make-up, how did they do their hair? The Egyptian society. Who was more important? How was woman treated? What were some of their customs like? Were they similar to ours? Did they give birthday cards, rehearsal dinner invitations or write love letters? ALIMENTATION ALIMENTATION: THE PORK ANIMALS ARMAMENT ASTROLOGY ASTRONOMY Beard Calendar Clothing COSMETIC Craftsman DANCE DRINKS Farmers Fortifications Functionarie Games HAIRSTYLE HOUSE AND FURNISHINGS JEWELS LOTUS MEDICINE MINES Nautical PRIEST School SCRIBE Slaves Soldier Taxes Travels Urban installations VISIR Walkout Woman condition Work

  • Life

    The drinks

      Great consumers of cow milk (irtchet), the Egyptians didn’t disdain goat milk or sheep milk. But the most appreciated drinks were wine and beer. The wine (erpi) was known during the Ancient Reign and was used only by the richest classes, in time it became a common drink for all the people. Usually it was mixed with honey and fragrances, many kinds of grape were used. During the Ancient Reign six different kinds of wine were known: red, white and black. In the New Reign the cultivation of the rine increased remarkably, the quantity produced, which was enormous, was preserved in carefully sealed jars. The most famous wines were…

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