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    Calendar

    With no doubt the Egyptians have been the first to invent a solar and rational calendar. Their year was made of 365 days and divided in 12 months of 30 days each, to which there were added, at the end of the yearly cycle, 5 supplementary days or “epagomeni”. The months were divided in three groups of four months that coincided with the three seasons. The flood season akhet The germination season pert The heat season shem Only in the low epoch a name was given to each month: Thot, Paophi, Athyr, Choiak for the flood season; Tybi, Meshir, Phmenoth, Pharmuthi for the germination season Pachons, Payni, Epiphi, Mesori for…

  • The Religion

    Duat

    qadjuguckap324 The divinity shapes her body into a circle. Its feet touch its head from behind. With the hands it bears the goddess Nut, who stands holding the solar disc on her head. It is the Hereafter; The name probably comes from the root dua: “morning”, used to indicate what precedes the morning, that is, the night, and particularly the land of the night, the hereafter. Pictorially, it is pictured as a star inscribed in a circle. This proves the doctrine of a celestial (stellar) hereafter preceding the doctrine of Osiris (earthly). The pictures of this divinity are extremely rare. One of them can be seen on Sethi I ’s…

  • animals

    Cats in ancient Egypt

      One of the most popular cults in Egypt, in the Late Period, was the one to the cat-goddess Bastet. In this period thousands of cats have been mummified to be sold to the pilgrims, who presented them to the goddess as an offer. The bodies of the cats were dehydrated using Natron, this process was similar to the one used for human mummification. They were then covered in bandages, with the paws parallel to the body.The example shown here is taken from the collection in the British museum, and it illustrates very well the very elaborated standard for the preparation used for these sacred offerings. Enormous cemeteries have been discovered that held thousands of…

  • Pharaoh

    Pharaoh Chefren

    Pharaon Chefren Chefren, Khaf Ra, in the original Egyptian denomination, he was the fourth pharaoh in the IV Dynasty, ascended to the throne as his brother Radjedef’s successor. He too, conquered soon, with the decisiveness of his manners and actions, the reputation of a cruel tyrant, able to keep Egypt in an iron fist, and to pursue an expansionist politic toward the Sinai and Palestine regions.Beautiful representations of Chefren have reached us: the most monumental and famous is undoubtly the one recognized in the Sphinx’s impassive face and his pyramid. Reproduction of texts or materials, whether partial or complete, in any manner, with any means is prohibited without prior written consent Support Isis’s Ancient Egypt    …

  • Life,  Mines

    Mines in Ancient Egypt

    The mines that the ancient Egyptians exploited, were all in the desert. There were deposits of copper, of malachite and of turquoise in Synai and east of Koptos and in Nubia and even gold mines were frequent. Their exploitation was rather difficult, because of the lack of water, of the unbearable heat and by the Beduins’ attacks. In the most ancient epochs even armed expeditions were organized. Only in the New Reign, thanks to Sethi I and to his son Ramesses II, the exploitations began to be organized. Some pits were dug already along the road that starting from Kuban (Contra-Pselkhis), led to the Nubian mines in Ekayate, where there…

  • Life,  Visir

    VISIR

    The title of visir (In Egyptian tjaty) was instituited under Snefru and the first one who used it was Nefermaat, but the function goes back to a much older time and was already performed by Imohtep under the pharaoh Djoser (the title tjaty was put before his name in the texts only in the successive epoch). The visir was at the head of the Egyptian functionaries and of the central administration. As the internal minister, he had relations with the nomarchs, he controlled the division of the land and the administration of the “corporations” of the professions, he supervised the police, recruited the troops. His orders were carried by the…

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